Book Summary – Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
There are 6 key principles of persuasion which can lead people to say “yes” automatically. Understanding these principles and associated techniques can help you to improve your influence and concurrently guard against others’ manipulation.
In this article, we’ll briefly summarize the 6 principles of persuasion, how they work and how they may be turned into weapons of influence against us. For the full details, examples and tips, do get a copy of the book, or get a detailed overview with our complete book summary bundle.There are simply too many environmental stimuli for our brains to process everything. Thus, we use specific cues as mental shortcuts to help us react quickly without the need to analyze all the information. For example, a flash of sharp teeth or blade will signify “danger”, causing us to step back instinctively without second thought. With the right cues, we’ll say “yes” automatically without conscious thought.Based on years of research, Cialdini discovered 6 “weapons of influence”, each built on a psychological principle of persuasion. Each principle can be used to bring positive change or deceive others, depending on the intention of the user. Being aware of these weapons allow us to guard against “compliance professionals” (e.g. salespeople or marketers) who specialize in getting people to comply with their requests.
When someone does something for us or gives us something, we feel obliged to repay in kind. The Reciprocity Principle is a vital part of human society—it facilitates sharing and cooperation which supports mankind’s social advancement.
• This applies to gifts, favors, or even perceived concessions. That’s why free samples and small gifts are so effective in soliciting sales and donations. To extract concessions, it’s common for people to use the “reject-then-retreat” and “large-then-small” tactics. Basically, the other party starts with a larger request (e.g. present an item for $20). If you reject the request, he/she makes a smaller request (e.g. present a less valuable item for $5). In this case, you’re likely to agree the 2nd request because (a) the requesting party seems to have made a concession, which triggers you to give a concession by switching from “no” to “yes” and (b) by perceptual contrast, the 2nd request seems smaller.
• The Reciprocity Principle may be used to push us into uninvited debts or unfair exchanges, e.g. being “forced” to accept an uninvited gift (and later cornered for a sale/donation), or being small gift or favor may be used to trigger a much larger favor or purchase in return.
• Learn to identify the true intention of the requester. If the person starts to make demands/requests after giving you a gift or favor, recognize that it’s not a real favor or concession (merely a persuasive manoeuvre) and frees yourself from the sense of obligation and makes it easier to say “no”.
CONSISTENCY, SOCIAL PROOF, LIKING, AUTHORITY, SCARCITY
• Consistency. Once we take a stand or make a choice, we feel compelled to behave consistently with our earlier commitment and to justify our own decisions. For this principle to kick in, a real commitment must be made, with a fundamental shift in self-image—this is most likely to happen when (a) we’re actively doing something in support of a position or decision, (b) have put in effort into our choice and (c) when our stand is public. Unfortunately, this principle can be used to nudge us toward unfavorable decisions or larger-than-desired commitments. In the book /full summary, we take a closer look at the factors influencing commitment, examples of how this principle is applied around us, and how to avoid being manipulated.
• Social Proof. When we’re uncertain how to behave or react, we look to others for answers. We assume that if lots of people are doing something, it must be correct. We find this principle at work everywhere, from long queues to testimonials and phrases like “best-selling products”. This principle is so powerful that it can overcome phobias, cause people to do things they personally disagree with, and even mimic aggression and suicide; it’s the most powerful when we are emulating the behavior of people who are similar to us. In the book /complete summary, we zoom in on more examples, including the phenomenon of “pluralistic ignorance”, and address how to guard against herd instinct and deceitful or erroneous social evidence.
• Liking. Generally, we’re more likely to agree to someone’s request if we know and like the person. Friendships and personal relationships can have a strong influence on our choices. Even if there’re no established friendships, you can trigger this principle simply by getting someone to like you. We tend to like people who are physically attractive, are similar or familiar to us, are associated with success/good news, praise and cooperate with us. In the book / full summary, we look at why referrals and Tupperware parties are so effective, elaborate on each of the factors that affect likability, and how you can minimize undesired influences.
• Authority. We are all conditioned (to varying degrees) to obey figures of authority. However, it’s relatively easy to others to trigger our compliance through symbols of authority like titles, clothing and other status symbols. In the book / complete summary, we look at how this principle is commonly used and how to protect ourselves against undue influence.
• Scarcity. Generally, we perceive something to be more valuable when it’s limited in availability. We value something more if we see its quantity reduced before our eyes (vs if it had been scarce from the onset), and we value it the most if it’s scarce due to demand or competition. In the book / full summary, we look at how people react to scarcity (including banned/censored items), common scarcity tactics used to rouse us into buying now, and how to guard yourself against them.
CONCLUSION & DETAILS IN THE BOOK TO LOOK OUT FOR
Each of these principles offer shortcuts to decision-making, but can also be used against us if we’re not mindful. You can use the insights from this book to positively influence others while protecting yourself from deception. The book is full of detailed case studies and examples to explain each of the 6 principles, illustrate how and why they work, and how they can be used against us. Do get a copy of the book for the full details, get our full book summary for a detailed overview of the various ideas and tips, or visit www.influenceatwork.com.
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