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Have you ever wondered how you make decisions in the blink of an eye? In this book, Malcolm Gladwell uses scientific research, anecdotes, and expert insights to unveil the power and pitfalls of snap judgments or intuitive decisions. In this free Blink summary, you’ll learn how to use “thin-slicing” to gauge a situation rapidly, with tips to improve the quality and accuracy of our decision-making process.

Blink in a Nutshell

The book opens with a story that shows how instinctive, snap judgments can be as good as logical, deliberate analysis.

The Getty Museum in Los Angeles was about to purchase a kouros, an ancient Greek statue. There were only about 200 kouros known to exist, making this a rare and valuable artifact. The museum experts did a comprehensive authenticity check over 14 months, using various scientific tests to analyze the material and age of the statue—and concluded that it was authentic.

Yet, when art historians and experts saw the kouros, many instantly sensed that something wasn’t right. True enough, further investigations revealed inconsistencies that suggested the kouros might indeed be a counterfeit. How did the experts detect the problem in just seconds or minutes, when the museum team had failed to do so after months of detailed analysis?

Blink summary - overview of snap judgments

In this book, Malcolm Gladwell emphasizes the importance of trusting our instincts, with 3 key messages:

• Snap judgments can be as effective as those made from lengthy deliberations.

• Our instincts can sometimes mislead us. Gladwell speculates that the Getty Museum team might have been so eager to acquire the kouros that they overlooked their own instincts. So, it’s important to know when to trust your instincts (and when not to).

• With awareness and focused training, you can enhance your intuitive decision-making.

Our Blink summary is organized into 2 main sections:
• The powers and pitfalls of snap judgments; and
• How to improve intuitive decision-making

Part 1: Power & Pitfalls of Snap Judgments

Let’s start with an overview of how rapid cognition or snap judgments work. This involves several related concepts such as thin-slicing and adaptive unconscious.

Thin-Slicing: How We Glean Insight from Limited Information

“Thin-slicing” refers to our innate ability to discern patterns and draw conclusions from minimal data. Such conclusions can be as accurate (or even more so) as those made from comprehensive analyses.

Gladwell shares several examples to illustrate how we can glean a lot from very little. For example:

• Psychologist Dr. John Gottman can observe a couple for just 15 minutes and predict with 90% accuracy if they’d still be married 15 years later.

• Strangers can observe someone’s living spaces for 20 minuts, and more accurately predict their personality traits compared to their close friends.

Basically, thin-slicing is a natural instinct. You assess new people and situations all the time, and you’re generally good at it. The key is to eliminate irrelevant details and zoom in on the few things that really matter. Find out more about thin-slicing and the examples above in our complete 12-page Blink summary!

The Locked Door: Why We Can’t Explain Our Intuition

The adaptive unconscious refers to the rapid-response system in our brain. It processes vast amounts of data without our conscious awareness, and makes split-second decisions based on past experiences and instincts.

We’re not fully aware of the reasons behind our snap judgments. It’s like part of our mind is kept behind a locked door. Even when we think we understand our choices and behaviors, our explanations may not reflect reality. Moreover, we think that we’re acting from our own free will, when our behaviors are actually influenced by a wide range of subtle cues around us.

In our complete summary bundle, we illustrate these with examples from sports, speed-dating, experiments on priming and subconscious problem-solving.

Basically, attempts to rationalize our choices can lead to misleading narratives. Gladwell believes that it’s sometimes better to trust our instincts, and to accept that snap judgments can be valid even if we can’t explain them.

The Warren Harding Error: The Pitfalls of First Impressions

Although snap judgments are powerful, our first impressions can be misleading due to unconscious biases and flawed assumptions.

The “Warren Harding Error” is named after Warren G. Harding, the 29th U.S. president. Harding was elected largely because of his appearance. He looked like a leader—with his tall stature, commanding presence, and distinguished facial features—so much so that people overlooked his lack of skills and experience in governance and leadership. Unfortunately, appearances can be deceptive, and Harding turned out to be one of the worst presidents in American history.

Check out our full 12-page Blink summary for more insights on:
• How your conscious and unconscious attitudes affect your behaviors;
• How you can uncover your hidden biases using the Implicit Association Test (IAT); and
• How you might counter such unconscious biases.

Limitations of Market Research in Consumer Preferences

Consumer decisions are complex and multi-faceted, and people often can’t explain their unconscious choices. Thus, market research is often unreliable for predicting consumer preferences.  In our full summary, we illustrate these complexities using several real-world examples such as Coke vs Pepsi, the Aeron Chair, and more.

Part 2: Improving Intuitive Decision-Making

Although much of our snap judgments occur unconsciously, we’re not totally helpless. Gladwell explains how we can improve the quality of our intuitive decisions. Here’s a quick visual overview of the key ideas:

Blink summary - How to improve intuitive decision-making

Applying Structured Spontaneity

Snap judgments and spontaneous actions may seem random, but they’re actually built on past experiences, learning and practice.

To make effective snap decisions, you need the right blend of intuition and analysis. Specifically, you must apply deliberate thinking (which is slow and thorough) and intuitive thinking (which is fast and adaptable) in the right contexts and combination.

Too much information can also hinder decision-making. A key to effective snap judgments is to identify and focus only on the essential factors, so you don’t get bogged down by irrelevant data. Remember: thin-slicing is not about making decisions with insufficient data. It is about making decisions with the right data, however minimal.

Get more details, examples, and applicable tips for each of these concepts from our complete Blink summary bundle!

Making Decisions Under Stress or Trauma

Stress can cloud our intuition. When we jump to hasty conclusions in tense situations, it can lead to disastrous results. Gladwell explains how we may develop temporary mind-blindness under high-stress or life-or-death situations, i.e. we lose our natural ability to “read” others’ intentions and emotions.

Fortunately, we can train ourselves to respond more effectively in times of extreme stress. More details in our full summary on:
• How to use training and simulations to improve your ability to handle high-pressure situations; and
• How to consciously control the environmental cues that influence your unconscious attitudes/beliefs.

Getting the Most from “Blink”

Ready to learn more about snap judgments and improve your intuitive decision-making  abilities? You can get more insights, examples and actionable tips from our full book summary bundle which includes an infographic, 12-page text summary, and a 29-minute audio summary.
Blink summary - Book Summary Bundle

This book is packed with detailed stories, examples, and research to help us understand the power of and pitfalls of our intuition, and how we can improve our rapid cognition to make better decisions in all walks of life. You can purchase the book here, or visit for more details.

Check out The Power of Intuition summary to learn more about intuitive decision-making. Or, learn about mental biases in our Thinking, Fast and Slow summary and how to see the world more objectively in the Factfulness summary.

About the Author of Blink

Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking was written by Malcolm Gladwell—an author, journalist, and public speaker. He has written for The Washington Post and The New Yorker and previously received the National Magazine Award for profiles. Gladwell has written several books, including New York Times bestsellers The Tipping Point and Outliers. In 2005, Gladwell was named among TIME magazine’s 100 most influential people.

Blink Quotes

“Decisions made very quickly can be every bit as good as decisions made cautiously and deliberately.”

“Our unconscious is a powerful force. But it’s fallible.”

“Our unconscious reactions come out of a locked room, and we can’t look inside that room.”

“We have, as human beings, a storytelling problem. We’re a bit too quick to come up with explanations for things we don’t really have an explanation for.”

“You need to know very little to find the underlying signature of a complex phenomenon.”

“If we can control the environment in which rapid cognition takes place, then we can control rapid cognition.”

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